Lasers are the most versatile and controllable energy sources available to the industry for processing materials. Not only, these are being used as a controlled intense source of heat for many metallurgical applications, welding, cutting, drilling and surface hardening; but also they have become accepted across a wide range of industries, from cutting intricate cardiovascular stents to drilling of guide vanes in the aerospace industry to welding of thick steels for ship building industry. Laser, a high intensity, precise, flexible and clean heat source is used as a manufacturing tool in several industrial sectors. With the advent of more robust, energy efficient, cheaper and low footprint lasers such as fiber lasers, laser-based manufacturing is increasing rapidly.
Depending on the scale of effects in application of laser in material processing, laser-based processes can be classified into macro processes (cutting, welding, cladding, alloying, the drilling, brazing) and micro processes (micro Texturing, scribing, micro drilling etc.)
With the availability of high brightness lasers such as fiber and disk lasers as well as ultra-fast lasers such as femto- and pico-second lasers, new beam material interaction phenomena appear.
Some of the recently developed industrial applications such as laser micro Texturing of automotive components, laser deposition-based repair of pressure die casting dies, laser brazing of aluminum alloys to steel, laser hardening of bearing steels and laser metal additive manufacturing are examples in the application of laser in material processing.
As a result, we can say the major advantage of laser in Materials processing is that it produces a better-quality product with minimum distortion at a high rate. The category of these application are divided: CW Lasers, QCW Lasers and Pulsed Laser.